### MCA-20-42:Computer Graphics and Animation

**Type:** Compulsory

**Contact Hours:** 4 hours/week

**Examination Duration:** 3 Hours

**Mode:** Lecture

**External Maximum Marks:** 75

**External Pass Marks:** 30(i.e. 40%)

**Internal Maximum Marks:** 25

**Total Maximum Marks:** 100

**Total Pass Marks:** 40(i.e. 40%) Instructions to paper setter for End semester examination:

Total number of questions shall be nine. Question number one will be compulsory and will be consisting of short/objective type questions from complete syllabus. In addition to compulsory first question there shall be four units in the question paper each consisting of two questions. Student will attempt one question from each unit in addition to compulsory question. All questions will carry equal marks.

**Course Objectives:** Provide an introduction to the theory and practice of Computer Graphics and Animation. Provide an insight to applications of Graphics and the graphics hardware devices and software used. Introduce the principles needed to design a graphics system and the algorithms related with them.

**Course Outcomes:** At the end of this course, the student will be able to:

**MCA-20-42.1** have a knowledge of graphics applications and components and devices required to support the applications;

**MCA-20-42.2** develop algorithms for scan converting geometrical primitives such as lines, circles, ellipses, and curves along with algorithms for filling polygons, required for designing real-world applications;

**MCA-20-42.3** design algorithms for carrying out manipulations in pictures using geometric transformations, viewing transformations , and clipping operations;

**MCA-20-42.4** model 3-dimensional objects and apply viewing, visible –surface determination, and shading techniques to the models for achieving realism. The student will also learn to design and develop animation sequences.

** Unit – I**

Introduction to Computer Graphics and its Components: Overview of Computer Graphics, its functions & elements; Introduction to GUI, Computer Vision, Augmented Reality and other Applications of Graphics; Popular Graphics Software; Components and Working of Interactive Graphics; Raster Scan and Random Scan systems and Display Processors; Look-up table; Loading the Frame Buffer; Coordinate Systems.

Graphics Devices: Display Technologies: Resolution, Aspect Ratio, Refresh CRT , Color CRT , Flat Panel Displays; Interactive Input Devices for Graphics , Image and Video Input Devices.

** Unit – II**

Scan Conversion: Drawing Geometry; Output Primitives; Lines and Pixel Graphics; AntiAliasing; Scan Converting Lines: DDA line drawing algorithms, Bresenham’s line Algorithm; Scan Converting Circles: Polynomial method for circle drawing, circle drawing using polar coordinates, Bresenham’s circle drawing; Algorithms for Generation of ellipse; Line Styles; Generation of Bar Charts, Pie-Charts.

Curve Representation: Parametric Curves, Parametric Representation of a Circle, Parametric representation of cubic curves, drawing Bezier curves.

Filled-Area Primitives: Basic Stack based fill algorithms: Flood fill algorithm, Boundary fill algorithm; Scan-line polygon fill algorithm and its computational structures.

** Unit – III**

Two-Dimensional Transformations: Coordinate and Geometric Transformations; Translation, Rotation, Scaling; Matrix representations and Homogeneous coordinates, Composite transformations, General Pivot Point rotation, General Fixed Point Scaling, Shearing; Reflection ; Reflection about an arbitrary line.

2-D Viewing: Viewing pipeline; Window, Viewport, Window-to-Viewport transformation; Zooming, Panning; Pointing and Positioning techniques; Rubber band technique; Dragging.

Clipping operations: Point and Line clipping, Cohen-Sutherland line clipping, Mid-Point Subdivision line clipping, Liang-Barsky line clipping, Sutherland-Hodgman polygon clipping; Weiler-Atherton polygon clipping.

** Unit – IV**

3-D Graphics & Modeling: Visualization techniques for Realism; 3D Object Representation; Solid Model Representation Schemes; Euclidean Geometry methods: Regularized Boolean Set Operations, Primitive Instancing, Boundary Representations, Curved lines and surfaces, Sweep Representations, Spatial-Partitioning Representations – Octree representation, Constructive Solid Geometry; Procedural Methods: Fractals, Shape Grammars, Particle systems, Physically Based modeling, Visualization techniques; 3D transformations.

Three-Dimensional Viewing: Viewing Pipeline; Parallel Projection: Orthographic and Oblique Projection; Perspective Projection.

Visible-Surface Determination: Z-buffer, Depth-Sorting, Area Subdivision, BSP-Tree method; Ray casting.

Illumination and Shading: Modeling Light Intensities; Basic Illumination Models; Gouraud Shading; Phong Shading.

Introduction to Animation: Designing of Animation Sequences; Key-Frame Systems; Animation Techniques: Tweening, Morphing.

**Text Books:**

⦁ Donald Hearn, M. Pauline Baker, Computer Graphics, Pearson Education.

⦁ J. D. Foley, A. Van Dam, S. K. Feiner and J. F. Hughes, Computer Graphics – Principles and Practice, Pearson Education.

**Reference Books:**

⦁ Newmann & Sproull, Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics, McGraw Hill.

⦁ Rogers, David F., Procedural Elements of Computer Graphics, McGraw Hill.

⦁ Zhigang Xiang, Roy Plastock, Computer Graphics, Tata McGraw Hill.

⦁ Malay K. Pakhira, Computer Graphics, Multimedia and Animation, PHI

⦁ Steven Harrington, Computer Graphics, A Programming Approach, McGraw Hill.